Yes, that works out just fine. The copies created by Replicate aren't "cast", so Chalice won't trigger for them.
February 26, 2016 11:51 a.m.
Yes you may. When copying a spell, it is put directly onto the stack without being cast (except for Isochron Scepter).
Since the copy is not cast, Chalice of the Void will not trigger. The copy will resolve and destroy the Chalice, then the Chalice's initial triggered ability resolves and counters the original spell.